Sunday, February 20, 2011

Assignment - Connecting the 7Ps of marketing to brand management

In your own words explain the relationship between each of the 7Ps of Marketing and brand management.  


The 7Ps are:



7 Ps
1.  Price
2.  Product
3. Promotion
4. Place
5. People
6. Process
7. Physical evidence

Instructions:
-Please leave your response as a 'comment' on this blog.
-This assignmetn should take you about 15 to 20 mins.
-Use your own thoughts and definitions
-Due on Feb 25, 2011


21 comments:

  1. 1. If the price of the product/service is not on right level, consumer might feel that she is paying premium price for low quality. When deciding the price of a commodity it is essential to see how it might affect your brand value. Too low price might make the commodity see not that desirable than with higher price…that instantly gives you an impression of luxury.
    2. The design or the experience of using a product or service, are the key ways of expressing your brand. Well branded good design can play a major role in translating brand values into product attributes and can enhance the brand experience.
    3. Promotion is the core of brand management involving PR, marketing, sales promotion and advertising. All these tools should be used to make the customer to believe in your brand. The message sent with these tools should be coherent and retell the brand image.
    4. Place is nowadays quite complicated thing with all new business areas like Amazon.com or eBay. These arenas are easily accessible to the mainstream audience but are quite low cost ways of displaying your products. These are market places for intangible goods but not services at least not yet.When deciding the place, you should keep in mind that in certain sectors where the location of a shop is crucial to the perception of the brand. In fashion industry the store must be located in certain street of the city or otherwise the customers will not take them seriously. The location of retail store might enrich the brand through the connotations of specific location or other way around.
    5. People must be devoted to work for the brand and it should be repeated in all levels of the company. Brand management takes place even there where you don’t see it. Especially service sector, where people deliver the service straight to the customer, they must be aware how they represent the brand.
    6. Process is the element of delivering the service/ product on time and that way reinforce the brand image. Process should on my opinion standardized, so that the consumer knows what he/she will get when she rely on some certain brand.
    7. Physical evidence is the thing is forgotten too many times. If you want to give a luxury impression of your product pallet, but then insist on printing your ads and catalogues on very cheap paper…it just doesn’t work that way. When following continuously some chosen line of branding then it should be coherent from head to toe.

    BR
    Hanna

    ReplyDelete
  2. 7 P’s
    1.Price
    The price of the product/service must be in line with the brand, so if a company promises the consumer that for example by buying their product, they will receive high quality and exclusivity, then the price must be according to that promise. In this case high, since the buyer expects a unique product which he/she probably won’t see all the other people having.

    2.Product
    Again, the product must fulfill consumer’s expectations and be in accordance with the brand. If the company promises durability, then the product should be durable etc.

    3.Promotion
    However the product/service is promoted or whomever the promotion is targeted to, the core message of the brand should be the same. Promotion is an important part of making the stakeholders believe in the brand.

    4.Place
    It’s important to find the right place to sell the product/service so that the brand wouldn’t be damaged but instead strengthened. You probably wouldn’t want to sell Louis Vuittons at Wal-Mart, but in some fine boutique instead in an area where other luxury goods are being sold as well.

    5.People
    People are essential in branding. If consumers are behind a company’s product/service and its brand, then I believe the company is in a very good position. At least I count on my friends’ opinions and for example my hairdresser’s opinion on what products they find worth buying.

    6.Process
    If you want people to trust your brand, then the process should support the brand. Like it said in the Essential brand book, timely delivery of the service can reinforce brand values. I like to consume naturally produced, organic goods and if I’d buy a product and then found out that some part of the process wasn’t actually implemented as the brand had promised, I would quit buying products from that brand.

    7.Physical evidence
    Continuing with the organic goods –example… When I buy organically produced shampoo, for example, I wish that the packaging would be recyclable and/or from recycled material. It would strengthen the image of a brand which emphasizes sustainable development.

    BR,
    Asta

    ReplyDelete
  3. 1. Price
    Price sets the brands value, whether its high or low. For example high price may guarantee its high quality and brand name would be therefore more valued.
    2. Product
    Product should be inline with the brand, if the brand gives you high quality, the product must be such as well. Product is what makes the brand, so they should be equal each other.
    3. Promotion
    Promotion should be set where the brands target markets locate. For example there's no point for high end Hermés bag to be promoted in Mens Health magazine. Promotion should also go inline with brand. Promoting in wrong way or wrong place may loose brands credibility, and also push away the customers who think after wrong advertising the product may not be for them after all.
    4. Place
    Look promotion ++ and the brands selling place should be also carefully chosen. For example Apples decision to bring iPhone only on sale with Sonera in FI created a whole lot of buzz, and sonera maximized its profits by selling the product you could only get from certain place. Brand was placed only in one spot, and therefore grew its brand as well.
    5. People
    Target market should be carefully chosen, some may want to go mainstream, but mainly it is the niché where you get the money from. Marketing in right channels for the target markets is essential, and now also social media has put consumers, people as brand creating and brand ambassadors role.
    6. Process
    The way the product makes its way to the table is also important. It should be clearly marked where the product is made in, and made of. The origin matters to people even more and more. They want something local, and by buying something local, they feel like they're supporting their environment, their "hood".
    7. Physical evidence
    Check above, so your label should clearly state where the product is made and what of. Also keep the brand promise, if it promises fast delivery, deliver in time.

    BR,
    Tytti Kaikkonen

    ReplyDelete
  4. 1.Price
    The price of the product is supposed to correspond the brand. Well-known and popular brands usually have higher price. Accordingly, consumers usually expect higher quality when paying higher price. In this way, the price of the product and its brand can be called interdependent.
    2.Product
    The product must correspond the brand, as the product is what makes the brand itself. If the brand is promised to guarantee quality, the product itself must be of high quality, etc.
    3.Promotion
    Promotion is a very important part of creating a brand. In any case, promotion should efficient, that is why it is crucial to promote to the right target groups using the right and appropriate promotion tools.
    4.Place
    Finding the right place for promoting and selling the product is also very important. This aspect also influences the creation and development of successful brand a lot.
    5.People
    The brand should be associated to a particular target groups. Marketing the product to the right target groups is very important. It is also worth mentioning that it is consumer’s opinion and behavior, which makes the brand successful and popular. People play a very important role in branding.
    6.Process
    The process of creating and selling the product is totally vital for branding. A good and trustworthy brand always means you know what this particular product is made of, where it was produced , by whom it was produced, how it was sold, etc.
    7.Physical evidence
    Good brands are trustworthy, i.e. you trust this product and know it’s origin. The quality of the product should also correspond the brand name and its promises in order to make the brand successful and long-lasting.


    by Julia Särki

    ReplyDelete
  5. Valentine Lapene DemayFebruary 24, 2011 at 5:11 AM

    1- Price : the price have to be in accordance to the brand. If the price is high, people think that the product has a good quality, and it gives a good image of the brand.
    if the price is low, people think that the product has a bad quality and the brand is not known.

    2-Product: Must be the same quality than the brand, must be in accordance with the brand. The brand makes its product so, if the brand is luxury for example the product must be good quality. For example, the brand Chanel is very known by people like a luxury brand and gives you high quality.

    3- Promotion: Brand have to use publicity, advertising... to do the promotion of its products. Brand have to choose the best promotion for its product in accordance to its target.

    4- Place: Brand have to choose the best place to sell its product. For example, if the brand is very luxury like Hermes or Prada, the brand have to choose a place where rich people used to come. But for a store like Zara, you can choose a "normal" street or a mall.

    5- Process: it refers to the methods and process of providing a service and is hence essential to have a thorough knowledge on whether the services are helpful to the customers. This process is really important for the brand and for people. Customers have to know how the product has been made, where...

    6- People: the brand have to choose the best target. People are very important for brand because the brand success thanks to them. Moreover, it envolves all the employees and it is essential for everyone to realize that the reputation of the brand is in all these people's hands.

    7- Physical evidence: Capacity and the environment in which the service is provided to help communicate and provide the service. Customers are over their satisfaction with other potential customers.
    For example, the quality of the product mustn't change and have to stay the same all the time.

    BR,
    Valentine.

    ReplyDelete
  6. 1 Each brand are in a special level of price. It can refer to a lot of thing as for instance a siocial level (channel), the quality, the associated services (apple), etc...

    2 In fact product have to be on the same level as the brand. I mean that if you have a brand picture which is relly high and for people your are top of this market, the product have to follow this way and be better than the other.

    3According to me the promotion is the most important for a brand in the 7p's. The thing that is really strange is: there is a special promotion for each brand. In my point of view it's impossible to twice the same promotion of different brand. Let me explain, take for instance Apple and Dell. Same market,but not same promotion. Apple don't communicate a lot because Steve Jobs success to create a holy brand in the people's mind. Each time that a new on the brand is on Internet, it's create a buzz.On a second part, you have Dell, that make a lot of advertisement on television and magazine.

    4 Choose the good place to promote and selling your Brand if I can say that.

    5 A brand must target a type of people.It's impossible for a Brand to target all the world. If you make a mistake in this part you will have serious problem after to change the bran's picture that people will have in there mind.

    6 Behind each brand there is a strategy. Process is the application of a brand strategy.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Price
    Price has a huge influence on how consumers perceive the brand. Usually it's considered the higher the price the better the brand.

    Product
    Product itself affects on brand by its physical appearance. Product's design, quality, packaging and various other features deliver the message of the brand.

    Promotion
    Promotion includes all the various ways of promoting: advertising, sponsorships, PR...etc. What is said about promotion is that bad publicity and associations stick to people's minds longer than the good ones.

    Place
    Place is a way to promote the brand too. Some brands choose to use only limited distribution where as other brands want to be available everywhere. Choosing a place is a strtegic tool by which company can create exclusiveness to its brand.

    People
    Brands often use people when developing their brand identity. The skilled and hard working employees are presented as the key elements when building the brand image.

    Process
    Consumers are paying more attention to the manufacturing process than before. Consumers want the process to be as much environmental friendly as possible and the process should not neglect human rights or exploit the employees.

    Physical evidence
    Physical evidence is that the brand is really paying attention to its appearance and really delivers the message in every way possible. If the brand wants to be seen as ecological all the actions and packagings has to be environmentally friendly.

    Best regards,

    Miina Lahdensuo

    ReplyDelete
  8. - The product is all that can be offered to satisfy customers the needs or wants.
    - Price, pricing, special deals are the main things when pricing for example the brand.
    - Distribution channels are a relevant part of the distribution (place).
    - Promotion is based on personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing.
    - Internal and external environment influences in the customer's experiences in the services or the in the product (physical evidence).
    - The smooth process is particularly important to the success of the service or the product.
    - People ie customers and employees. For example professional employees guarantee the customer satisfaction.

    Br,
    Ulla-Maria

    ReplyDelete
  9. 1.Price: is one of the most important selection criteria on the customers purchase. When a person wants to buy a product they always check the price before buying it, this price gives an impression to the possible customers altering the perception and the image of the brand. Normally we think that a good brand is always that one which has the most expensive products.

    2.Product: One brand can have a lot of different products or services for different ends, we call this product range. The company has to create a unique brand identity to transmit this image of unification to its products. The image influences in the reputation and the perception of the customers about the products and brand.

    3.Promotion: Is used trough different tools of communication, like public relations (events), sales promotions or advertising. But we can say that promotion is also other tool of your brands communication. You use it to persuade your customers to believe in your brand. Each promotion for each product has to have a clear message, and also don’t forget that in that message has to be also the “global brand message”.

    4.Place: The location of the product is a very important point to know how the value of a brand is. Products and stores located in main places transmit better image than others that are not. Through the place the customers can feel and perceive the company identity and make a good perception of the brand.

    5.People: People are good communicators of the brands. The word of mouth is powerful. If the people (customers or other type) have a good image of your brand because other factors, they can tell good thing about the brand to other persons, and there’s nothing better than recommendation from a relative or a friend.

    6.Process: The way of doing the business process is reflected in the image brand. A good develop of this will be a big reinforcement of the brand values. The manner of do the things is a very important thing in the world of communication.

    7.Physical evidence: The final product, the thing that you are watching in the moment of purchase, the external appearance. The packaging, the information of the brand and the product are compulsory thing that the company has to check and show to transmit, on the best way, the values of the brand.

    Br,
    Patricia Piera

    ReplyDelete
  10. 1. How to find the right price for the brand? I think that way that better the brand, higher the price.
    2. Well made product enhances your brand. If your products or services are not good, your brand is not working either.
    3. Promotion is the core thing when thinking of brand. By promoting you make your brand visible.
    4. The right place for brand is where it comes alive and it can be easily spotted. Choosing this right you can easily become better than your competitors. For example centralizing your new service or product in just one place can make huge interest in consumers.
    5. When creating and making your brand better you need to think carefully who your audience is. Where is your right audience? For example when companies are signing in social media channels, which channel to choose to find your target group?
    6. Branding is an ongoing process; it does not come in a one night. For example branding a country: time changes, people changes, expressions change, you need be in the head of the game.
    7. When you are branding your company in a certain way, your products need to fit in that certain brand. When your brand is high quality, your products need be high quality and not just products, the other things as well with what you are promoting your brand.

    BR
    Tiina Kuusisto

    ReplyDelete
  11. 1. Price
    Price is very important issue for customers, as customers get used to compare it. Also the price is the meaning of perception of the brand. The task of brand management is to manage prices right. Price should not be too high (in case of the same quality, the customer will buy the product from the competitor), or too small (customer will become anxious about the quality of the product).
    2. Product
    Whether the producer focused on sole brand, or it has a portfolio of sub-brands, if the quality of product meets the customer needs and it is of good quality, the demand will support the brand itself.
    3. Promotion
    It is the main activity in brand management, the set of tools to make the customer to trust the brand. It should be in line with the whole style of brand in case the promotion is organized via different channels: TV, newspapers etc.
    4. Place
    The location of sales places has the connection to the brand identity. Depending on brand values the product can be sold in warehouse (Ikea) or in luxury department store on Fifth Avenue in New York (luxuries brands). Or Point of Sale in the shop has a lot of info regarding brand (refrigerator with Danone yogurts).
    5. People
    Staff's dress code, behavior manner or even the satisfaction with the job can influence on the brand perception.
    6. Process
    The way the business processes are organized at enterprise can support/or cannot support the brand.
    7. Physical evidence
    It is all, that is in line with brand personality and helps to express it: starting from product's packaging till the drafts of documentation at enterprise with logos on it.

    BR,
    Oksana Dolzhenko

    ReplyDelete
  12. Tiakaisa KarjalainenFebruary 25, 2011 at 5:02 AM

    1. It is important to set the right price for a product to create the right image of the brand. If the price is set at a premium the quality must be in line with the price because too low price might not seem as desirable to some vice versa. A higher price usually gives a feeling of luxury but quality must live up to the set price. For this reason it is easier to ask for a higher price after the brand is more known.

    2. Design, quality, structure must all live up to customer expectations. A product that is of a unique design can be the core of a brand enhancing customer experience.


    3. Promotion must be completed according to target market. It involves PR, marketing, sales promotion and advertising. The image set forward to the audience must be consistent even if there are different types of tools or even audiences. If it isn’t consistent then then the brand may lose credibility. Promotion is a very important part of branding because it is a way to get the brands core message across to people.

    4. Before place only meant location but in today’s business world there is the internet also which is a world of its own. Locating stores, business buildings such as headquarters in certain locations is crucial for a brands success. If an IT company wants to be seen as a professional brand it should be located in e.g. Silicon Valley. In the food industry there are many chains of grocery stores that all have different brand images so you should place your product brand in a certain type of grocery store chain e.g. Lidl is not the right type of store for a luxury cheese brand.

    5. The people are the key to branding. Internal and external people should be a part of brand building. Employees and management should be devoted to the brand and reinforce it in their daily work. The target market should believe in the brand so when choosing who are the target market they should be chosen according to what the brand stands for.

    6. The process that is carried out to deliver a product brand to the customers is important. If the brand is based on ethicality and on being ecological then the way the product is produced should correspond to these beliefs. Consumers have become accustomed to there being transparency in a company’s different activities. When processes are “transparent” trust is created between a company and its stakeholders. Also sales processes etc. should be carried out according to brand image. The way the personnel act and look should according to the brand values and beliefs.

    7. The materialistic stuff must be in line with the brand image as well. Too many times do companies forget to think about the appearance of packaging or placing a logo on plastic bags. Brand personality is captured through everything associated with the brand so even small details are important.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Price: The price of the goods or services are a key element to distinguish the marks, through the price you can position the brand in the market, from a luxury or a necessary good, also through prices can differentiate the competing brands.

    Product: The characteristics of the products also can help differentiate yourself as a brand, because really what consumers are buying is the product or service, depends on how pleased you are with the product/service, this brand will have more or less popularity with the public.

    Promotion: The promotion is key to the brand, you should choose the way that you want to promote yourself, how elements you will use, taking care of your campaigns to get the best results to your brand, so it is advisable to know your audience and study into because not all the media or promotion strategies are valid for all.

    Place: Find how and where to sell the product or service is very important for not to damage the image of your products.

    People: Knowing your audience and who are really your fans is very important when making any branding strategy, to know what methods to follow, that prices we can put, to which product characteristics like more, etc the best promotion come from your customers satisfied and so we have to deal them carefully.

    Process: Today almost all brands unveil their making and work processes, it helps build trust with consumers, I think that makes your brand more transparent to others, also currently working to get more efficient processes and effective while taking care of the environment, and many brands have changed their processes to retain more people.

    Physical evidence: It is increasingly important to the packaging and labeling of products, many of the investments in R & D companies are related to this, the physical elements of the product are those who are in more direct contact with people and must therefore be attractive and at the same time satisfy the needs of the public that the packaging is recyclable for example, that the label explain clearly what is being sold, etc.

    Maria del Mar Llorens

    ReplyDelete
  14. Price: the price must be consistent with the brand and the price has much influence on how the consumer perceive the brand.
    Product: the product is the expression of the brand. If the consumer brand represents quality, the product must be of quality. Therefore, once the product has to be consistent with what the brand represents
    Promotion: The promotion is based on the advertiments, personal selling, sales promotion .. etc. I think that is the main activity of the brand, the tool so that the consumer knows the brand.
    Place: choose the place is a tool for brand promotion. Some brands choose exclusive or unique sites that will give you value exclusivity and brands they choose to be in many places
    People: the brand have to choose the best target and the the people.Personnel serving our consumers affects the brand, a bad impact on the service affect in consumer and therefore the brand. Moreover, the consumer has a lot of weight in the fame that will have the brand, as depends on the satisfaction that the consumer report.
    Process: The processes must be properly structured, whether we speak of a service or creating a product, this will take us to the logistics company to reduce costs, increase profits and thus promote the image of the brand.
    Physical evidence: The physical evidence helps to create the environment and the atmosphere to influence brand perceptions with customers, are things like packaging, shape, color, placement on the stand, signs ... etc.

    Sheila Gómez

    ReplyDelete
  15. Product: The name of your product or service may be another than a company name. Regardless the numbers of items are under the brand management, the company must market the brand, not the company, product or service itself. The brand must provide value to a customer and people might recognize the products in the brand and at the same time and not know the parent company who produce it.
    Price: What company charge for the product or service is going to influence brand. For example for example luxury bags like Hermes, If the company sells high-end bag too cheaply, the image will be tarnished if your target market is high-income earners. Customers do not want to be associated with cheap, luxury bags. The price of the product or service needs to correspond with the brand image of the product or more significantly with the target market’s perception and experience of the brand.

    Place: How and where product or services is distributed refers to the “place” aspect of the marketing mix. The distribution needs to correspond with the message company promote and communicate. If your brand talks about being high quality, fashionable and expensive and, then shops on the best locations and high end retail stores, magazines, and even on line hop might be the right choices of distribution. Connecting the point-of-sale with the brand is required. The company need to be selective when choosing the method of distribution, as it has to express the same image to consumers as the brand does.

    Promotion: The viewpoint of advertising can differ a little in the sense that you can sell to company’s target market while at the same time building company’s brand. For instance, the company advertises its products in the right venues to make sales, but you also use the brand as sponsorships for events. Company might not sell a Hermes bag, but you can certainly sponsor an charity event and promote company’s brand through charity event..

    • People: People refer to the customers, employees, management and everybody else involved in it. It is essential for everyone to realize that the reputation of the brand that you are involved with is in the people's hands. Representing the brand and interacting with customers impacts the brand experience. All these segment groups must be appropriately trained in the brand’s values and to be well motivated to support and evolve the brand

    • Process: Processes refers the detailed situations, where customers come in contact with the brand. Process is an element of service that sees the customer experiencing an company’s offering. It's best viewed as something that a customer participates in at different points in time. For a marketing process, from the customer's point of view.
    Shopping in Hermes store - from the moment that a customer arrive to the store she/he is greeted by the door man and service representative; service representative will take care a customer through the whole service or buying process. Introduction of products, purchasing process such as payment, packaging and greetings for the customer. This is a highly focused marketing process.

    • Physical evidence: It refers to the experience of using a product or service. When a service goes out to the customer, it is essential that you help him see what he is buying or not. For example- Hermes’s store furnishing, packaging, brochures etc.
    Br, Anne-Mari

    ReplyDelete
  16. Great responses everyone. I like where each of you are headed with this! Awesome!

    ReplyDelete
  17. 1. Price

    The pricing strategy can dictate how consumers categorize the price of the brand and how firm set that price. Consumers may infer the quality of a product on the basis of its price. Many marketers have adopted value-based pricing strategies attempting to sell the right product at the right price to better meet consumer wishes. From a branding perspective, it is important to understand all price perceptions that consumers have for a brand. For example the luxus industry is also definied by the price

    2. Product

    The product is really important cause it is the first influence on what the customers will think about the brand. If the product doesn't give a good impression then it will hurt the reputation of the whole brand itself. The product is the most important thing in the reputation of the brand.


    3. Promotion

    The promotion is of course related to brand management in a way that the promotion will influence the brand image in the customer's mind. We will all remember some goods advertising campain.


    4. Place

    The distribution channel will also contribute to the reputation, for example certain product are just sell in a few stores wich make it exclusive.Depends on the strategy .

    5. People

    They also are really important. The customers but also the workers.

    6. Process

    Procedure, mechanism and way the product is done can impact the brand. For example the fair trade is based on the equity of the producing way.NIKE who was hiring asiatic children to do their shoes, the brand was really damage by this process. There is several examples like those.


    7. Physical evidence

    This refers to whatever your customers can see before purchasing. This can include the physical environment, packaging, supporting collateral and anything else. This has to be evaluated and planned also strategically to be coherent with the overall image of the brand.

    ReplyDelete
  18. 1. price: the price is really important because it has to be in accordance with the image the company wants to give about its product. if the company misunderstand the market demand it can lead to a wrong price.

    2. product: the product has to be in accordance with the target that the company wants to reach. this is the connexion between the company and its customer and this is want the customer are gonna judge.

    3. proñotion: it s very iñportant to make a good promotion of the product to make it known and to keep promoting it in order to be still in mind of the consumers.

    4. place: the place has to be in accordqnce with the product you want to sell. for example you don't sell a Dior costume in a supermarket¡ so the place has to correspond to the product

    5: people: they're gonna buy or not your product, so you have to make everything possible to convince theñ to buy your product. they're gonna be the once who will judge your product and give feedback of their impression of it.

    6: process: another really important part of the marketing mix¡ the brand has to think about how the things are gonna be done, executed; the whole process from the the conception to the final sell in the shop or the delivery of the service. everything has to be well thought, to maximise profits, save money and quality product, and be really competitive.

    7: phusical evidence: important point. keep in mind the packaqging, service delivery, logo design etc.

    BR,

    Nicolas Bousquet

    ReplyDelete
  19. Maria Antila said...

    1. Price in branding is the setter of the image for the product/service. Highly priced brands take a note in customers' minds as presentative of quality. Low-priced brands might be selling in mass volume.

    2. Product is not everything of the brand. Brand is like a personality. It includes more image and associations than just some whatever trademark product. Branded product/service could be said to have a guarantee of certain level of quality.

    3. Promotion in branding is based on the target market areas. Different cultures need different type of advertising methods, PR, sales promotion and marketing channels Image to be created and sustained is something important for the brand. Marketing research can be used as a tool for promotion.

    4. Place has made to new dimensions since the internet and postal order have made it possible to find products from areas far away from the physical location of the customer. Place for a boutique of a luxorious product and product placement in the store must be carefully designed.

    5. People have an impact as being part of the crew providing the brand for the business partners and for the customers, and then people as customers (suspects or prospects). Relationship marketing may have an important role for the reputation of brand, though every customer certainly might have own experiences and opinions differing from the opinion leaders' point.

    6. Process is the total quality management of the brand. All the 7 P's of the brand portfolio must be taken care of. Markets can be both buyer or seller lead, so the demand for a certain branded product/service needs to be fulfilled and on the other ways, needs can be created.

    7. Physical evidence is based on the production and sales which can be interpreted for the customer for example as user friendliness of the product/service, and bring customer satisfaction into the level of happiness. Brand benefits from the similarity on the outlook and interior of the products/selling place and has to meet certain level of quality agreed.

    BR, ma

    ReplyDelete
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